Monday, January 22, 2018

Queen of the Kitchen: a collection of old Maryland receipts by Miss Tyson

In 1870, a charity cookbook was compiled by "Miss Tyson" to fund a new church building for the Protestant Episcopal Church in Oakland (western Maryland).  The first edition was so successful that the church building was built.  Enlarged and no longer for charity, the cookbook went through three more editions by a publisher in Philadelphia.  So, who was "M. L. Tyson"?

Miss Tyson is the latest in my American Women Cookbook Authors series.  The first three Maryland cookbook authors - Elizabeth Ellicott Lea (1845), Tyson (1870) and Jane Gilmor Howard (1873) - were related by marriage, as detailed below.

Mary Lloyd Tyson Tucker (1842-1908)

Her mother Rebecca Ann Key (1809-1889) was the daughter of Philip Barton Key, Francis Scott Key's uncle. "Rebecca Key, a Queen-like looking woman, I went to school with her although she was older than I. She was engaged to Lt. Hazzard,... she jilted him." [Kennon] In 1828 she married Dr. William Howard (1793-1834), son of Col. John Eager Howard, and lived in a grand Greek revival mansion on Monument Square, Baltimore which he designed and built in 1829. William also designed the McKim's Free School in 1830, still standing. They had three children, two died young, and William Key Howard (1829-1899) who was 13 years older than Mary (both were raised in the mansion).

Three years after Howard's death, Rebecca married her second husband Dr. Alexander H. Tyson (1809 or 1812-1859) in 1837 and had a daughter Mary Lloyd Tyson. Alexander was the son of Nathan (1754-1819) the uncle and namesake of Martha Ellicott's (sister of Elizabeth Ellicott Lea) husband Nathan Tyson.  He was also the uncle of Thomas Tyson who married the twin sisters of Elizabeth and Martha Ellicott. Rebecca Key Howard Tyson sold the home in 1860 (a year after her second husband died) to the Athenaeum Club.

Mary Lloyd Tyson was in her 30s (and had done two editions of the cookbook) when she married the older George J. Tucker (1824-1903) in 1875 in Preston County, WV. They lived in Tucker County, WV in 1880, and by the 1890s were in Boyce, Clarke County, VA. They had no children, separated in 1894 and then Mary went to court to get the annuities from his parents' estate. George died in Virginia and was buried in Green Mount Cemetery, Baltimore.

So, where did a 28 year old get all the recipes (1007 in the 1874 edition) "all of which have been tried and approved, and been in use for many years"? From "a receipt book used for many years" was stated in the first edition's title. In the preface to the second edition: “from several old family receipt-books.” Undoubtedly she could borrow one or more recipe manuscripts from her mother's Howard sisters-in-law. The Howards had entertained often at "Belvidere" in Baltimore. Jane (Mrs. B.C. Howard) put out a charity cookbook in 1873 with some of the same recipes. Recipes could also have been gathered from friends, her mother's friends, relatives (many Tysons, Howards and Ellicotts were still in Baltimore) and other cookbooks (ie. EELea's Domestic Cookery, 1845, 1846, 1851).

As detailed below, she became interested in the church building-fund while visiting Oakland.  She was given the land by a Baltimore architect and raised enough money through cookbook sales before 1874.

Queen of the Kitchen
The first edition in 1870 was published by Lucus Brothers in Baltimore for charity.  The church was finished in 1874, debt free.

A second edition, not for charity, was published in Philadelphia in 1874 and increased the 288 pages to 412 and was advertised for $1.75 or $3.00 gilded.  Mary Lloyd Tyson married the next year.

For the last two printings, in 1882 and 1886, the title was changed from "Old Maryland" to "southern cooking" and was still published in Philadelphia.  Mary Tyson didn't have her married name included with the change of title, probably to continue sales appeal. (they would seperate in 1894).

Maryland's first 3 cookbook authors were related through marriage.

Elisabeth E. Lea's Domestic Cookery, 1845
Elizabeth Ellicott Lea (1793-1858) wrote the first cookbook by a Marylander.  The Ellicotts, like the Tysons, were wealthy Quaker merchants and mill owners. Her father George Ellicott helped develop and lived in what would become Ellicott City, and three of his daughters married a great-uncle and a cousin of Mary Lloyd Tyson. 

Mrs. B.C. Howard's Fifty Years in a Maryland Kitchen, 1873
Jane Grant (Gilmor) Howard (1801-1890) married the son of RevWar hero Col. John Eager Howard.  BC's brother was Dr. William Howard, the first husband of Mary's mother.  Another brother, Gov. George Howard's country home "Waverly" would live on in both their books as "Waverly Jumbles." 


1870 -
"BALTIMORE, a witty Bostonian has declared to be, “The Gastronomic Centre of the Universe.” If this be so, she is certainly entitled to speak with authority upon matters gastronomic, and we feel that we are doing great service to the world at large in thus publishing these “Old Maryland Family Receipts,” which have been in use for many years with house-keepers “of credit and renown.”

The purpose which induced the publication of this volume, is as unusual as its merit is independent of a more intrinsic value, and the sole object of any pecuniary benefit that may result from it, is to accomplish the erection of a Protestant Episcopal Church in the town of Oakland, Maryland, situated on the summit of the Alleghany Mountains. A most excellent charity.

House-keepers will find the blank leaves which have been inserted, a great convenience for recording any additional receipts to those suggested by the Queen, who declares that each and every preparation of hers will make

       “ A proper dish
To set before the King ! “
1874, 1882, 1886 -
"The Queen of the Kitchen " is not now presented as a stranger, for she attained immense popularity upon her first introduction to the public, when she made so many friends, and met with so cordial a reception, that, at the earnest solicitation of those who are in need of a good practical receipt-book, the author determined to publish this new, enlarged, and complete edition of "The Queen of the Kitchen." She has made an addition of several hundred receipts to the book as originally issued; and is certain that all who will give it a fair trial, will acknowledge that it excels all other Cook-Books in practical cookery, and it will be found to be equally as well adapted to the wants of the young as to those of the experienced housekeeper." 

Only the first 1870 edition mentioned the church - "The purpose which induced the publication of this volume, is as unusual as its merit is independent of a more intrinsic value, and the sole object of any pecuniary benefit that may result from it, is to accomplish the erection of a Protestant Episcopal Church in the town of Oakland, Maryland, situated on the summit of the Alleghany Mountains. A most excellent charity."

Oakland Church

The church was built on land donated by the architect Josias Pennington (1854-1929) of Baltimore, in 1871 and finished debt free in 1874.  Pennington was starting as a draftsmen for E. Francis Baldwin (1837-1916) in the 1870s then they formed a partnership, doing many of the buildings for the B&O railroad.  The church closed in 1939, sold in 1946 and then was moved to Coraopolis, Pa (north of Pittsburgh). 

A minister who fought his congregation to keep his job, had the backing of the owner of the church - "Miss Tyson" - Mary L. Tucker.    From The Sun newspaper, April 19, 1892 - 

Many years ago Miss Mary Lyson [Tyson], now Mrs. George J. Tucker, of Baltimore, whilest spending the summer in Oakland conceived the idea of building a church.  The late Josiah Pennington, also of Baltimore, conveyed to Miss Lyson a building lot for that purpose for a nominal sum.  She then, through her own means and contributions from friends [she compiled a charity cookbook], erected a church, which has since been used by the Protestant Episcopal congregation.  Miss Lyson, however retained the title and still owns the property.  She desires Mr. Hipkins to continue as rector and the status seems to be this: Mr. Hipkins has a church without a parish, and the vestry has a parish without a church.

Two months later on June 2, 1892 The Sun reported that "Mr. Hipkins retires", ending the litigation.  Mrs. Mary L. Tucker of Clarke county, VA had conveyed the property to him, and since she would not allow him to transfer the title to the bishop he signed it back to her.

 4 Queens of the kitchen...

The Queen of the Kitchen : a collection of old Maryland receipts for cooking : from a receipt book used for many years : all tried and approved. Baltimore : Lucas Brothers, 1870. 288p online HERE

The Queen of the Kitchen : a collection of "old Maryland" family receipts for cooking : containing 1007 practical and useful receipts, all of which have been tried and approved, and been in use for many years By Miss Tyson. Phila: TB Peterson, 1874. 412p. “from several old family receipt-books” in preface. online HERE

The Queen of the Kitchen : a collection of southern cooking receipts, containing over one thousand southern receipts in practical cookery. Philadelphia : T.B. Peterson, 1882.

The Queen of the Kitchen: a collection of Southern cooking receipts. Miss Tyson.  Phila: 1886 412p. recipes “from several old family receipt-books” on title page. online HERE

Mrs. William F. Lucas

The Maryland Historical Society has an 1870 edition inscribed to the publisher's wife -

Mrs. Wm F. Lucas
With the compliments
of Miss Tyson

Mary E. Roberts (died 1896) married William Fielding Lucas (1819-1897) who took over the stationary and printers that his father Fielding Lucas (1781-1854) had started (Lucas Brothers) in 1804.

Mrs. Moses Cohen Mordecai

My 1870 copy was owned by Isabella (Lyons) Mordecai (1804-1896) -- "Mrs. M. C. Mordecai  156 St. Paul St.  Baltimore."  One example of the support of the wives of wealthy business owners for the project and/or friendship with the author.   

Moses Mordecai (1804-1888) was a prominent shipping merchant in Charleston SC, active in his Jewish community and in the South Carolina Senate.  During the Civil War he supported the Confederacy, and his ship 'Isabel' (named for Isabella) took Major Robert Anderson and his staff from Fort Sumter to the Union ships, then it became a blockade runner. By 1868 they moved with their sons to Baltimore and continued their steamship line at 45 S. Gay St., which operated between Baltimore, Charleston, Havana and New Orleans.  In 1870 he transported the bodies of 84 soldiers killed at Gettysburg back to South Carolina for free.

Two Miss Mary Tysons

In the early 2000s I spent several days searching in the Maryland Historical Society and Library of Congress for any "M Tyson" around this period. I did detailed research on each possible person, then set the info aside for years. Recently I decided to write a blog post about Tyson and her Queen book. The following Miss Tyson (Mary L) remained single and was older (like Jane Howard). The daughter of Isaac Tyson, she bought a copy of Elizabeth Ellicott Lea's cookbook since her aunt married EELea's brother. [mentioned in an EELea letter] I have used and researched Lea for decades so this Miss Tyson was my early favorite, but I was wrong. Kara Mae Harris sent me looking in the newspaper index. However, since I had brought this Miss Tyson back I didn't want her lost again to history, so here she is...

Mary L. Tyson (1803-1885) - bought EELea's book in 1847

Mary was born into a prominent milling and merchant family.  Elisha Tyson, her grandfather, was a well known Quaker abolitionist and early philanthropist.  Her father Isaac Tyson married Elizabeth Thomas, the sister of one of the founders and first president of the B&O railroad (started in 1827) and another Thomas sister married into the Ellicott family. All were prominent Quaker families.

Never married, Mary and her father moved in with her sister Henrietta and John Saurin Norris, Jr. In the 1880 census after her father and sister had died, Mary, 77 sister-in-law was still living at 217 Madison Ave., Baltimore with the 67 year old bank president and his three unmarried children in their 30s. When their four children were being born, John and Henrietta lived at his family's home and farm "Olney" in Hartford County (which is north of Baltimore, towards Philadelphia), from 1842-1850, and named their second son John Olney Norris.

Baltimore city homes -
Mary L. Tyson at 217 Madison (the same block as Martha Ellicott Tyson, EELea's sister at 299 Madison) and Jane Howard at 220 N. Charles were just a block from each other in the 1870s and 1880s. 

Selected Sources
Evans, Charles W. Biographical and Historical Accounts of the Fox, Ellicott, and Evans Families Buffalo: 1882

Baltimore City Directories

Oakland, Garrett County, Maryland, centennial history, 1849-1949

The Sun newspaper, April 19, 1892; June 2, 1892

Quertermous, Grant. A Georgetown Life: The Reminiscences of Britannia Wellington Peter Kennon. Georgetown U Press: 2020

US Census

©2018 Patricia Bixler Reber
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