Barbados deforested due to sugar production, Beekeeping in Bhutan, Jacques Pépin (artist, chef), British Saffron and other talks.
Concentrating and Preserving Milk.—Gail Borden, Jr., Amenia, N. Y. Patented Aug. 19, 1856. Reissued May 13, 1862:
"I claim, first, The within-described process, or method of operation, for concentrating and preserving milk, by means of coagulating and re-arranging the albuminous particles, in combination with the evaporation of the fluid, in vacuo, substantially as set forth.
Second, The preparatory coagulating and re-arranging of the albumen, when this is done as a part of the operation of making concentrated or condensed milk."
Vacuum pan 1856 patent
MILK AND ITS PRESERVATION.
"The general use of milk, as well for the nursery as in various culinary preparations, justifies a frequent recurrence to the subject, calling attention to the character of the article. Milk, like blood, is a living fluid, and it will begin to die after removal from the seat of vitality, as soon as “a fish out of water.” It is so delicate a fluid that nature has provided that all young animals, as well as the infant child, shall receive it in such a way as to prevent any contact with the air. It was this idea that first turned Gail Borden's attention to adopt a plan to prevent incipient decomposition, by condensing milk in vacuum, evaporating its watery elements as soon as it could be drawn and brought from the cow. Milk had previously been concentrated by various methods, several of which had been patented, but previous to Mr. Borden's patented improvement, condensed milk had been used to a limited extent, principally by voyagers. Practically, it had not been produced at a sufficiently low cost to enter into competition with the sale of common milk. This has now been done. Mr. Borden claims that, by his process, milk can be condensed so rapidly and cheaply that the extra cost is more than balanced by what is saved in the reduced expenses of transporting it to market, and therefore it is now sold by the New York Condensed Milk Company at a less price than the best fluid milk. He claims that the milk is better, because it has not been exposed (as common milk must necessarily be) in its fluid state, from the time of milking to that of using it in the city.
By the process of Mr. Borden the milk is first heated by steam to a temperature of from 190° to 200°; then strained into a receiver connected with the vacuum pan, into which the milk flows in quantity indicated by the progress of evaporation. When reduced to the richness desired, which usually requires over 4 quarts of ordinary milk to make one of condensed milk, the latter is drawn from the pan and subjected to a second heating in the steam bath, to a degree indicated by the consistency; it is then again introduced into the vacuum pan where the ebullition goes on until the temperature of the milk is reduced by means of the vacuum and the use of cold water passing through the steam chambers. The milk is lastly put into 40-quart cans and immediately cooled down to a low temperature, when it is ready for the market.
Sometime ago, we noticed the above invention of Mr. Borden, and we are happy to be able to state that it has now become a very large business in this city."
Scientific American July 2, 1860
Borden 1865 reissue
"sent us a large wall-tent, twelve caldrons and camp-kettles, two cooks, and a detail of six men. The tent was put up at once; Dr. Ware giving to its preparation the only hour when he might have rested during that long nightmare. We began to use it that (Tuesday) morning. It is filled with our stores; there we have cooked not only the sick-food, but all the food needed on the Government boats. It was hard to get it in sufficient quantity; but when everything else gave out, we broke up "hard-tack" into buckets full of hot milk and water a little sweetened, -- "bread and milk" the men called it. Oh, that precious condensed milk, more precious to us at that moment than beef essence!"
Literature of the Republic. pt.4.1861-1889. NY: 1891
1856 Vacuum pan patent No. 15,553 HERE
1865 reissue No. 2,103 HERE
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CALENDAR OF VIRTUAL FOOD HISTORY TALKS HERE
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